German and Dutch are both Germanic languages. They share a number of similarities. Many of the sound differences between them are the result of the High German consonant shift. This consonant shift affected consonants which did not change in Dutch. High German originated in the highlands of southern Germany and formed the basis of the standard language. Low German originated in the lowlands of northern Germany.
In many cases a Dutch "p" or "pp" is a "pf" in German. Here are examples:
German: Apfel (apple), Pfad (path), Pferd (horse)
Dutch: appel (apple), pad (path), paard (horse)
In other cases a Dutch "p" is an "f" or "ff" in German. Compare the following:
German: Dorf (village), Schaf (sheep), Schiff (ship)
Dutch: dorp (village), schaap (sheep), schip (ship)
A Dutch "t" is often an "s" or "ss" in German. Here are examples:
German: besser (better), Strasse (street), was (what)
Dutch: beter (better), Straat (street), wat (what)
There are many examples in which a "t' in Dutch is a "z" in German:
German: zehn (ten), zwei (two), Zwilling (twin)
Dutch: tien (ten), twee (two), tweeling (twin)
A Dutch "d" often corresponds to a German "t". Here are examples:
German: Tag (day), Tier (animal), Vater (father)
Dutch: dag (day), dier (animal), vader (father)
A Dutch "k" is often a "ch" in German. Compare the following:
German: Buch (book), ich (I), Kirche (church)
Dutch: boek (book), ik (I), kerk (church)
As a result of the High German consonant shift, German and Dutch have many regular sound differences. They include affrication, a sound change in which the Dutch "p" or "pp" became a "pf" in German, spirantization in which the Dutch "t" became an "s" in German, and weakening in which the Dutch "k" became a "ch" in German. Knowledge of the High German consonant shift can make it possible to predict related words in both languages.
Related languages have a number of words which are similar to one another. In the branch of linguistics known as historical linguistics, the...
The opera "Turandot" features an Asian princess who many men wish to marry. However, if they wish to do so, they must answer thre...
English has eight inflectional affixes. They are affixes which have a grammatical function but do not change the class of a word. They alw...
Most English compound nouns are endocentric. This means that the central meaning of the compound is carried by the head. The head of English...