Monday, February 27, 2017


Scots is a language spoken in the Scottish Lowlands and parts of Northern Ireland. The language developed during the Middle English period. It has approximately 1.5 million speakers.

Scots is classified as a regional language by the government of the United Kingdom. It's now included in the national school curriculum of Scotland. However, the use of Scots in the media is very limited.

Scots is similar to English but is nevertheless a separate language. Many English plurals are different in Scots. Here are examples:

calf/calves cauf/caur
cow/cows cou/kye
eye/eyes ee/een
horse/horses horse/horse
shoe/shoes shae/shuin

The sentence She's awfully tired  is She's awfu fauchelt in Scots. The first word of the sentence is identical and the second is almost the same, but the third is different. The negative not is na in Scots. This illustrates a few of the differences between the two languages.

Scots is a language spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern Ireland. It developed into a distinct language during the Middle English period. It's one of three native languages spoken in Scotland along with English and Scottish Gaelic.

Friday, February 24, 2017

Baked Cod with Lemon

Baked cod with lemon is a Norwegian dish. It's simple to prepare and tastes great. Here's the recipe:

4 cod fillets
4 tablespoons butter, melted
2 tablespoons lemon juice
4 tablespoons flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon white pepper

Preheat the oven to 180 degrees Celsius.
Cut the cod into serving size pieces.
Mix the butter and lemon juice.
In a separate bowl mix the flour salt and white pepper.
Dip the cod in the butter and lemon and then roll in the flour mixture.
Place in an ungreased pan.
Pour the remaining butter on top.
Sprinkle with paprika.
Bake for 25-30 minutes or until the fish is ready.
Garnish with lemon slices and parsley.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

Prefix Sub-

The prefix -sub has the meaning of under. It comes from Latin and appears in many English words. The prefix has variants with the same meaning.

The prefix can be found in many words. Examples include submarine, substitute, subterranean, subtitle and subway. A submarine travels under the sea, a substitute works under the regular employer, a subterranean river is located underground, a subtitle is text displayed at the bottom of a screen and a subway travels underground.

The prefix -sub also has variants. They're the result of assimilation. Words with variants of the prefix include suffix, suggest, support, suppress, and surreal.

Here is how the words changed as a result of assimilation:

sub + fix = suffix
sub + gest = suggest
sub + port = support
sub + press = suppress
sub + real = surreal

In these examples we see that the second consonant assimilated the first. This consonant is the trigger and the assimilated consonant is the target. The direction of the assimilation is from right to left. This is also known as regressive assimilation.

Words with the prefix -sub are usually words which have been in the English language for a relatively short period of time. However, those words which have variants such as -suf and -sur are usually words which have been in the English language a long time. Words with assimilation tend to be words which have been in the English language longer than words without assimilation.

Many English words contain the prefix -sub. This common prefix also has variants such as -suf, -sup and -sur. The Greek equivalent of the Latin -sub is -hypo.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Butter Steamed New Potatoes

Steaming potatoes in butter is a wonderful way to cook them. New potatoes are ideal because they don't take so long to cook. Here is the Norwegian recipe:

10 new potatoes
4 tablespoons butter
1 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon white pepper
1 tablespoon finely chopped fresh dill

Scrub the potatoes under cold running water.
Pat dry with paper towels.
Melt the butter in a pot.
Add the potatoes and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Coat thoroughly with the melted butter by rolling them in the pot.
Cover the pot tightly.
Cook over low heat for 30 to 45 minutes, depending on the size of the potatoes.
Shake the pot from time to time to prevent the potatoes from sticking.
When the potatoes can be pierced easily with the tip of a knife, they're done.
Arrange on a serving plate and sprinkle with chopped dill.

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

English Grammar

The expressions made from and made of are used differently. When objects consist of material which hasn't been changed in any significant way, made of is used. However, when the material is changed significantly in the process of making of a product, made from is used.

The following examples illustrate the use of made from:

Cream is made from milk.
The earliest canoes were made from tree trunks.
Wine is made from grapes.

These examples illustrate the use of made of:

She wore a beautiful necklace made of expensive silver.
The table is made of glass.
This chair is made of wood.

The expression made from is for a material which was transformed in the process of making the finished product. Grapes aren't visible in wine, so made from is appropriate. When the original material is visible in the finished product, made of is required. Silver is visible in a silver necklace, so made of is used. English makes a distinction that is illustrated by the expressions made from and made of. 

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Vocabulary of Catalan

Catalan is a language that is primarily spoken in northeastern Spain. It's the official language of Andorra, a small country between France and Spain. The language is similar to Spanish, but in certain cases the vocabulary is closer to that of French. Here are examples of Catalan words followed by their equivalents in French and Spanish:

one un un uno
two dos deux dos
three tres trois tres
four quatre quatre cuatro
five cinc cinq cinco
six sis six seis
seven set sept siete
eight vuit huit ocho
nine nou neuf nueve
ten deu dix diez

blue blau bleu azul
book llibre livre libro
butter mantega beurre mantequilla
cat gat chat gato
door porta porte puerta
hot calent chaud caliente
kitchen cuina cuisine cocina
nephew nebot neveu sobrino
plum pruna prune ciruela
table taula table mesa

From the vocabulary list it's clear that Catalan words are sometimes closer to Spanish than French. This is the case with dos (two), tres (three) and calent (hot). In other cases the words are closer to French as in quatre (four), vuit (eight) and blau (blue). A few words are similar to both languages such as cinc (five), gat (cat) and porta (door). Thus Catalan has many words which resemble words of both French and Spanish.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Tomato Soup

This French recipe for tomato soup is tasty and easy to make. For best results use fresh tomatoes. Here is the recipe:

2 tomatoes
2 cups beef stock
2 tablespoons semolina flour

Peel the tomatoes.
Chop and puree.
Bring the tomato puree and beef stock to boiling.
Simmer for 30 minutes over low heat.
Season to taste and cover.
Simmer for 10 more minutes.
Sprinkle the semolina over the surface and stir well.

If desired, you can serve this with croutons. I hope you enjoy this soup!